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Ruza Petrovic, Marina Blagojevic: The Migration of Serbs and Montenegrins from Kosovo and Metohija

APPENDIX

1. EXAMPLE OF "ISOLATED" RESPONDENT

A five-member household, consisting of a married couple with three children who moved from a village which at the end of the second world war was totally Serbian but now there are hardly any Serbs. A native family (the father head of the household, and all its members were born in Kosovo) which before moving had 20 members (the parents with their three sons and their families), all of them moved and split up into five households, including the one in the survey. The move took place in 1973 and 1974. The head of the household worked in Kosovo as a miner, and is employed as a blue-collar worker here, the eldest son, who came here as a schoolboy, also has a job. The head of the household speaks Albanian well.

Before moving, the whole property, a house and six hectares of land, was sold to an Albanian farmer from the same locality for a price considerably below its value which was paid in installments. First they gave 30 million and later 16 million and said, "it's ours anyway, take what we give you."

Relations between Serbs and Montenegrins at work were good. "We got on fine, we were real friends. While we were there they took on one Serb and two Albanians but now they only hire their own and none of ours.

The "irredentists" didn't affect our village. We didn't have any conflicts at all, neither us nor the children. We didn't leave because of them. We never had any trouble, we were able to go out whenever we wanted to, we minded our own business, the children never fought or quarreled. We decided to move in 1970, we hadn't even an electric light bulb, electricity was far away, there were no shops, it took three hours to get to the doctor, the children had to go to school, there were no facilities there. My eldest brother was the one who wanted most to move, my mother didn't, she was used to living in the country. It took two or three years for us to sell the land and get the money, first my father and brother bought a plot here, then I did. There's a lot of people from our village here.

The communal authorities here (a village in the direct vicinity of a town) didn't stop us coming and building a house. The locals avoid us, they call us Albanians but we're not. They get angry because they say that we will take their graves from them, they say we take everything and it's not our fault... I heard one of the locals one day say that us "Albanians" should be thrown out, "they'll kill us one days, they say.

When we came the house wasn't finished, we lived in the basement, at night it rained on the children, we lived off my wages and built the house. Now we haven't any problems, the house is better than the one in Kosovo, we've electricity, both of us work, we've bought a television, a refrigerator, a washing machine and a car.

Relations with the neighbors were better down there, we got together more, there was more respect. It was easier for us there, we had land and food from it. It's better here, (the prospects for the household), my son works and my eldest daughter worked and got married, the children can learn more. From a psychological and social point of view, it's the same for us because we weren't afraid down there either. Everything has changed, we've built a house, we've got everything we need, it's better here. I wouldn't go back not for the whole of Pristina. Here we live a modem kind of life. We wouldn't go back to Kosovo under any condition.

It's bad and ugly that we are moving but its much better here for us. We didn't know what life, peace, freedom and happiness were until now.

2. EXAMPLE OF "UNCOMMUNICATIVE" RESPONDENT

Both the head of the family and his wife were born in Albania, they moved to Kosovo in 1934 because of pressure placed on Montenegrins in their place of birth, he left Kosovo in 1984 and moved in with his son who had moved out in 1982 and married a local girl. In Kosovo they had 10 hectares of land and a house, they sold everything, at an appropriate price, to Albanians from the same locality and from another commune. The respondent and his wife speak Albanian, their son, although he was born in Kosovo, does not.

The head of the family was employed in Kosovo but he does not want to comment on jobs being given to candidates of different nationalities, he says that relations were good in his firm and that he didn't have any problems because of his nationality.

In the township, whose ethnic composition has changed from mixed to mainly Albanian, relations were very good, they didn't have any trouble. They deteriorated after 1968 but he doesn't want to say why. He began to think of moving in 1968 because he was afraid that they might be left alone because all the Serbs were beginning to leave, but it took 14 years for them to move until they got a good opportunity to sell the land. The son didn't even try to find a job in Kosovo, he just came here. Reasons for moving: work for the son. and the example of former leaders who left Kosovo and as long as the leaders continue to leave the migrations ' will go on. The socio-political organizations have discussed the migrations and decided to put am end to them, while the media has not discussed the problem at all. The authorities and courts, I don't want to talk about that. There is no change whatsoever in the way of life here, except that there are more of my own Serbs here. Relations with the locals in Serbia are good but the communal authorities have shown a lack of understanding, the administration is lax.

Pollster's note: the respondent is exceptionally uncommunicative and suspicious. When on several occasions his wife tried to say something he rudely interrupted her.

3. EXAMPLE OF "RETICENT" RESPONDENT

The head of the household, his wife and their two children were born in Kosovo, his father moved to Kosovo from Montenegro in the period between the two world wars. They had neither house nor land, now they have a family house and their housing situation has greatly improved. Only the head of the family, who had been employed in Kosovo, spoke bad Albanian.

Relations between the workers weren't bad. The manager was a Serb, he didn't make any difference between nationalities. More Albanians were employed, about 16 Albanians to one Serb. I had trouble at work, they weren't exactly fond of me, they used to report me. His father had trouble and clashes with the Albanian who bought his land, he didn't want to pay him the agreed price. They didn't let the children go out alone, they were afraid that they might get into a fight with Albanian children and that there would be a blood feud. The township used to be mainly Albanian and is now totally Albanian, there was pressure on Serbs and Montenegrins. Relations in the township were much better before there was a different kind of authority, then when Rankovic was replaced the Albanians raised their heads and the migrations began. They began to think about moving in 1965, when others began to leave and the sons were the main reason, for the children to have some peace, not to have conflicts with the Albanians. Five years were to pass before they finally moved and found work. The socio-political organizations could hardly wait from someone to move, the organs of authority, courts and information media did nothing to resolve the ethnic conflicts. The move was made under pressure, you can't live there. The head of the family was a member of the League of Communists from 1965 to 1967, he returned his membership booklet because only Albanian was spoken at party meetings and the migrations were not discussed.

Friends who had moved earlier told him what possibilities there were, where he could buy land, the head of the household got a job here before he moved, one of his sons got one afterwards and the younger ones are looking for jobs. They rented accommodation until they finished building their house.

Relationships with the communal authorities are good. The locals think we're Albanians, they don't see any difference, only after the demonstrations in 1981 did they begin to see the difference.

It's better here in every sense of the word, particularly for my sons, they've got jobs, they'll get apartments. The biggest change of all is the freedom of movement, I can go wherever I want to even in the middle of the night. I'm not afraid for the children, they can go out by themselves.

Pollster's note: the head of the household is uncommunicative, reluctantly consented to the talk, does not understand many of the questions, says that they are all the same. His wife is far more open and encourages him to reply. Later he said that his father had died in Kosovo and the land cannot be sold, Albanians are sowing crops on it and using it as if it was their own. The cooperative doesn't want to buy the land because it too is run by Albanians.

4. EXAMPLE OF "OPEN" RESPONDENT

The household head of the family a blue-collar worker and his wife with three sons employed (they had been schoolboys in Kosovo) and two daughter-in-laws from this locality. They live in a family home, the same size as the one they had in Kosovo, but the one in Kosovo was more comfortable because they had a large yard and outhouses. In Kosovo they had 7.5 hectares of land which they sold, like the house. An Albanian from the same area bought it for a price below its real value and paid it off gradually. I had several offers but I had to sell it to him and on his terms. All the sons spoke Albanian. The head of the family had been employed but in Skoplje not in Kosovo.

- The village was small, 85 Serbian and Montenegrin houses but when they moved, there were only three Serbian houses left. There weren't any Albanians in the village before but round about 1981 the Department of Internal Affairs began to buy up land and bring in emigrants from Albania and the fights and threats started immediately. Relations in the community very bad, fights and crops damaged, they drove their cattle onto my wheat. Six of them waited for me at the gate to beat me up. I came out and took their pitchforks and hoes off them, I came out to the gate with a pistol. The police took away my pistol immediately but I had to buy another. The children: they fought each other, beat each other up, came home covered in blood, they took their books, copybooks, pens away from them, tormented them, five or six of them would be waiting them and all this went on right up to when we moved. They damaged my property, they cut down all my woodland, I had to sell it. They practically stole it, they only gave me a million dinars for it and it was worth two and a half. They were always threatening me, waiting to kill me. Once they were in the wood waiting on horses, so I sent the children round by the road and took a pistol and an axe and hid in the graveyard and then went after them slowly. They let the children go, they were waiting for me, so I used the bushes for cover and skirted around them. If they attacked the children, I would have killed them with the pistol. But if they had caught sight of me, then there would have been murder. We had to move because we couldn't live with threats and in fear.

My son was coming home from the town. Some Albanians were trying to rape a Serbian girl so he rushed to defend her, he caught the knife by the blade but he managed to save the girl. He arrived home with his hand bleeding, but the authorities did nothing when we reported it. During Ramadan, an Albanian with a drum came to our village with Serbs and Montenegrins and began to beat it at midnight. When I came out he said that he had been told to do this. I chopped up his drum, they attacked me and I have to move because they'll kill my sons.

I didn't transfer the sale of the property, they won't do it for me, nobody pays the taxes, its all in my name. They want me to pay it all and bill me for it.

I would go back to Kosovo if the Albanians moved out but the way things are there's no room for us, do you want us to fight each other?

We thought of moving before but I made up my mind in 1978 when they gave them the Albanian flag, the place didn't look like Yugoslavia any more but like Albania. The house and land were purchased by force, you have to sell. I decided to sell when an Albanian came to the gate and said, "either you sell your land or we kill your three sons".

Social political organizations: they were waiting for us to move, they always said, "leave if you don't like it". The authorities and the courts did nothing, they destroyed a hectare of maize and beans, it could have had a yield of 6,000 kilos of corn. husks but the compensation the court awarded me amounted to 200 kilograms of maize and 5 kilos of beans!

The information media: nothing! They spoke to us here and said that they would put it on "Jury" (a television program) but nothing came of it!

Migration process: the downfall of Yugoslavia and Serbia and Old Serbia was in Kosovo, the people were left to fend for themselves without the protection of the state and the authorities.

We moved here because of our relations and perhaps to find work. We built a cabin and lived in it until we put the roof on the house. I and my eldest son found jobs, my daughter-in-law is still looking for work. It was hard to get used to the new surroundings, new people and things are expensive, the wages are small, its impossible to survive Down there I had a farm, here only a house, from the land I had I could have built five houses there but when I sold it I was only able to build one here. Everything costs money here, I was a farmer down there, I had land, cattle, brandy, I only had to buy salt, sugar and coffee but I have to buy everything here. My children are safe here, they can move around without fear. The locals haven't really accepted us, they say, "if you were alright down there you wouldn't have come here you'd have stayed where you were!"

For days on end I think about my people, I live here and my spirit is down there.

No observations were recorded by the pollster.

5. EXAMPLE OF "BITTER" RESPONDENT

A young family with three children, one of them born here. The husband has a university and the wife a high school education. They separated from their families (parents, heads of the households) before migrating. The father sold half his land so that his son could build a house here, to an Albanian from the same locality at a suitable price, to be paid in installments, they'd sell what's left if they could, we're not in a position to dictate the conditions. They moved in 1982. The head of the family works, his wife has not been able to find a job either here or in Kosovo.

Giving jobs to candidates of different nationalities: I know that they were not treated equally but I didn't feel it when I started work. All in all, relations at work were not good at all, especially among the blue-collar workers, there were often fights and all sorts of things happened, I didn't have any special difficulties.

There were families we got along fine with families we'd stop and talk to when we met but what they thought about us when we turned our backs I don't know. Then there were families we had problems with. The children were small, they couldn't leave the yard because every time they did they got a beating, even if they were in the yard by themselves and there were no grown-ups around, stones would be thrown at them. That's why we came here. My children wouldn't have been able to go to the nearby school because there were very few Serbian children there, so they would have had to go to the other end of the town and that would have meant taking them to school and picking them up every day. I don't recall any big changes in relations but they were different in rural parts. His wife says that even when she was growing up fin the country the children had to be taken to school. The deterioration of relations is felt far more strongly in the country than in the town, back in 1963-64 they attacked my father and uncle and in 1968 they began to tell them openly to move out. I didn't have any special difficulties but my father and uncle did. For example, we had a vineyard, and once when my father was coming home from hunting he found it full of sheep. He went to the owners of the sheep, Albanians who lived nearby, and politely told them to get them off. They discussed the matter without fighting or getting angry but as soon as my father turned to go they attacked him from behind and took away his rifle.

We decided to move in 1976-77 because of this sort of thing. You could feel what the situation was really like, you could sense that something was going to happen, that's what the atmosphere was like. I was a political activist, we knew what the situation was but nothing could be done. I wanted to move, my wife didn't, it was hard for her to leave her parents and sisters. It's been 5-6 years now since we moved, we haven't had a moment's rest, what with raising the money and buying the piece of land, time has gone by.

Reasons for moving: the children and the overall situation. In my firm, people who took part in the Albanian demonstrations in 1968 got managerial positions. When the demonstrations began in 1968, the director ordered the electric power station to be turned off. I was beside him when he gave the order. After the demonstrations, he was called to task, an urgent meeting of the leading political activists was convened but only for Albanian activists, the Serbs and Montenegrins were not invited. Later, I read in the minutes of the meeting that the director denied giving the order and everyone "believed him". Worse things happened but there's no point in talking about them, many people know that the people who took part in the demonstrations were given much better jobs afterwards. Albanians who behaved correctly, and in certain cases stuck up for the threatened Serbs, were suspended. An Albanian member of the League of Communists who called for those responsible for the damage to be called to task was ignored and was subsequently accused of being a trouble-maker at work. Some of them warned me in time when the disruptions were being planned so that I could steer clear of them and avoid trouble.

There were several Albanians in the party organization at work. Relations between members of different nationalities - it depended from case to case. They weren't exactly anything to write home about because the majority of Albanian party members took part in "nationalistic" demonstrations. They didn't always behave the same way, it depended who they were and how well they knew you. We discussed inter-nationality relations We tried to implement the conclusions of the Central Committee but our party organization did not succeed in doing this.

The information media - there was no information at all and if there was it was sparse and arrived late As far as the judicial organs were concerned, I think there were all sorts of goings-on but as an active social political worker, I didn't want to believe everything I saw. The organs of authority operated under the influence of the social-political authorities, they were their extended arm. Bakali was not held responsible when he should have been because the social political authorities didn't take him to task. The Albanians had backing and help for everything they did in Kosovo. And everything they did, they did according to plan, not by chance. No-one can convince me that it was a coincidence that the Grand Hotel, the Social Accountancy Service building and the Sports Hall in Pristina were built in the shape of what looks like a two-headed eagle when viewed from the air. This was done on purpose. It was noticed during the demonstrations but the public has still not been informed. Why have they kept quiet about it? Why hasn't someone been called to task? Nothing here is purely coincidental.

There's not much point in talking about this. You haven't lived there and perhaps you think that something can be done but we who have seen it, feel that nothing can be done, not in the type of system like the one at present.

Migration is a big problem for us and our society too, just a little more and we'll have an "ethnically pure" Kosovo. The few Serbs that are left have either made arrangements for their safety or are planning to move here, first the young then the older people.

We came here through our relations, we lived in rented accommodation for a year. They still call us Albanians, they won't connect us up with the main water supply in this township where we are almost all migrants from Kosovo. It was better down there because we were born, went to school and had real friends there and here we're newcomers. Our living standard was better, we were with our parents, we didn't have any household expenses. We lived in a town there, here we're in the country far from the shops. The biggest change of all is the freedom, we move round freely, we can even cross the street at night.

Pollster's note: Today I had on a red jumper with black stripes and a black skirt. I put them on quite by chance and the wife said that if she wore something like that in Kosovo the Albanians would say she was one of them. I didn't understand at all and her husband asked me if I had worn it as a provocation. I was totally confused and they explained that they were the colors of the Albanian flag and that Albanians often wore them.

6. EXAMPLE OF "BITTER-OPEN" RESPONDENT

The household is made of up of the parents a married couple, two sons, two daughters-in-law, one from Kosovo and one a local girl and two grandchildren. The head of the household is a retired member of the police force, the two sons have a high school degree and have jobs, one of the daughters-in-law works and the other is looking for a job. Before moving, they sold their house and left the land to a brother who still has no intention of emigrating. The family home here is bigger than the one in Kosovo, but the housing situation is worse, we've no water or sewage system, they treat this as an "illegal constructions. The house in Kosovo was sold, at a price far below what it was worth, to an Albanian, a middle-man, a black-marketeer with no occupation. All the members who came from Kosovo (where the father - head of the household was born) speak Albanian, the older ones speak it better than the younger members.

Up to the end of World War II, there were slightly more Albanians in the township but when the migration began it was no longer possible to calculate. Albanians are "under orders" to have up to ten children. Thirty or so years ago, relations were reserved but very correct, particularly between neighbors. From 1966 on, the word went round that it was all over with the Serbs, they had got word "from above" to drive them out of Kosovo. They spat at the children when they spoke Serbian, they had to be picked up from school. They were worse to the little boys than to the girls. Relations in the townships were disastrous, the Albanians fixed everything for themselves, they don't pay rent or electricity, they move by force into apartments where Serbs live, there was no law they respected, it was worse than the Wild West.

The head of the household worked in the police force. The Administration was bilingual. Up to 1966, relations with Albanian colleagues were correct but when Rankovic was sacked the persecution of Serbs began: political denunciations, slander, all Serbs in the police were placed under investigation and their Albanian colleagues pretended not to know them. After 1968, no Serb could be given an executive appointment and a knowledge of Albanian became compulsory. The head of the household had great difficulties. He was prosecuted as a result of the totally false testimony of an Albanian he had never seen before, let alone knew. He didn't dare to detain any Albanians and they didn't even hand over the Order with Silver Wreath to him but hid it instead. They persecuted him and well-known Balists he had hunted down as a commander at the end of the war, threatened his sons and relations. On several occasions he had trouble with his colleagues because he didn't want to beat up a Serb who had been brought in after being beaten black and blue by some Albanian and had got the finishing touches from an Albanian policeman. On the beat he was forestalled by Balists who abused, insulted and threatened him in public. The behavior of the Albanian policeman had nothing whatever to do with respect and logic. It's terrible, all the things you have to turn a blind eye to: the rape of Serbian women, kidnapping, damage done to 'Serbs and I don't know of more than two cases where the perpetrators-Albanians were found guilty in court. The family had to move constantly from place to place in Kosovo to avoid the Balists' attacks but it was always the same, harassment from all sides, a man couldn't bear it any longer. In the end he was forced to take early retirement in 1973, there was nothing more to expect, it could only get worse, and it did.

The open border with Albania is partly to blame for the situation, their teachers teach the Albanian children in Kosovo that the Serbs are enemies and aggressors. Everybody knows this but nobody does anything about it. The funds set aside for the undeveloped regions are not spent on the economy but used to buy up the houses of Serbs and Montenegrins. The mild and tolerant stand of the supreme powers, the worse the Albanians become the more the authorities pat them on the back and so on. Now they're persecuting the real communists in Kosovo, the Balist movement has developed into the worst type of fascism.

The head of the household was a member of the Party from 1948 until 1975 and his son became a member here. No-one listened in the Serbian League of Communists' party organization. They only did what sifted the Albanians. I felt it was stupid that my Party Secretary should be the son of a notorious Balist I had fought against and the president of the court a "comrade" who had been a Balist and a fascist during the war. But the conclusion was always that everything was just fine. The Serbs complained but the party organization received its directives directly from Mahmud Bakali and it got worse and worse.

It took four years to move, until his son found a job here through his relations and arrangements were made to find a plot of land to build a house on. I couldn't get a plot of land when I competed for it, I was told in the commune that I could build here and afterwards it transpired that it wasn't possible. They wanted to let me build, although the area hasn't been urbanized. Even now we have no water or sewage system and they tell us that we'll never have them. The entire township has been "illegally" built by people from Kosovo and we can't solve the problem through the local community association, it's as if we didn't live here. First we rented accommodation and stayed with relations We don't have much contact with the locals, we tend to look more to the town. They call us Albanians but I don't think they mean to be unkind.

There are no great differences in relations between neighbors, we don't mix a lot although we used to in Kosovo. Our living standard there was better. Here we're free, the children can walk the streets in peace and go to school.

Although there is no reason for it, I still haven't got used to the fact that nobody harasses me here, that I'm at ease and don't have to wonder whether someone is going to shoot at my window to provoke me at night. Here there's the law.

The head of the family spoke in great detail, every question stimulated him, he gave me a large number of examples of threats made to Serbian families by Albanians The wife, quiet and retiring, adds something about the way the family was constantly harassed, she still prepares food the way they do in Kosovo, she feels homesick.

7. EXAMPLE OF "BITTER-UNCOMMUNICATIVE" RESPONDENT

When it moved, the household split up into three separate households, the parental couple in Kosovo, two brothers with their families who moved and separated. The land was not sold, nor does the father want to sell it and move out (all of them were born in Kosovo), the township is mainly Albanian and the male members of the household speak Albanian.

The head of the household is a highly-skilled worker, his wife is a housewife and they have two children. He looked for work in Kosovo but couldn't find a job, but we'd have moved even he had found work. The Albanians took care of that, they didn't employ us, I mean the Serbs and Montenegrins.

Relations in the township, "not bad, no mayor problems". Relations between children of different nationalities "could have been worse". Relations deteriorated after 1964, "the irredentists" began slowly to put down roots. We didn't have any problems, we left at the last moments, in 1976.

Measures taken by the social and socio-political organizations-"why take measures when it doesn't suit them". The judicial organs had "more important work to do", the organs of authority "didn't do anything", the information media "I don't keep up with it much" Assessment of the migrations, "I don't think I'm competent to give one If I was, leaders and officials wouldn't make mistakes and then get promoted, That doesn't happen anywhere, it could only happen here!!!

They began to think about moving in 1972 "just like that", the reason for moving: "none really". My brother was here already so I came too, they lived with his brother until the house was built. In Kosovo the household had no consumer durables, now it has, the living standard is the same. The head of the household got a job before the household moved. "It was hard to make our minds up, but now that we've here, there's no going hack. Here everything is better, we decide how we're going to live.

The attitude of the commune they have moved to is good, the locals, "they should be sent down there for a bit, then they wouldn't dream of calling us Albanians. We'll have to get to know them a little betters.

Pollster's note: The head of this family was quite nervous during the talk, a nervousness mixed with indignation over the ineffectiveness in halting the migrations. On the whole his opinion can be summed up by the conclusion that everything is done in order to do something and that's the way it is with this survey.

8. Population According to Nationality 1961, 1971 and 1981 -communes -
Commune Year No. of inhabitants
Total Albanians Serbs Montenegrins Others
Vitina 1961. 1971. 1981. 33.642 39.780 47.839 20.497
26.927
35.105
10.442 9.649 8.369 311
192
179
2.392
3.012
4.168
Vucitrn 1961. 1971. 1981. 39.779 50.724 65.512 28.767
42.065
57.351
8.787 7.500 6.091 945
586
381
1.280
1.573
1.691
Glogovac 1961. 1971. 1981. 22.044 29.329 40.514 21.265
29.133
40.447
491
125
27
108
12
5
180
59
35
Gnjilane 1961. 1971. 1981. 53.476 67.893 84.085 30.395
43.237
59.764
18.901 20.237 19.212 246
184
174
3.926 3.708 4.935
Decane 1961. 1971. 1981. 25.582 31.335 40.640 22.472
29.474
39.179
413
310
234
2.534
1.357
898
163
194
329
Dragas 1961. 1971. 1981. 21.028 26.850 35.054 9.346
13.867
18.623
150
139
93
44
33
21
11.488 12.811 16.317
Djakovica 1961. 1971. 1981. 53.270 71.374 92.203 47.864
66.492
87.588
2.180 2.071 1.898 2.805
2.303
1.953
421
508
764
Istok 1961. 1971. 1981. 33.779 41.009 50.104 19.067
27.371
35.972
9.097 8.944 7.736 3.804
2.420
1.856
1.811 2.274 4.540
Kacanik 1961. 1971. 1981. 19.735 23.978 31.072 18.561
23.445
30.406
861
379
284
24
16
27
289
138
355
Klina 1961. 1971. 1981. 33.046 42.351 54.539 24.227
33.050
45.594
8.012 7.864 6.829 1.394
1.157
973
313
280
1.142
Kos. Kamenica 1961. 1971. 1981. 43.058 46.305 48.320 24.556
29.268
32.390
17.454 16.550 14.813 51
51
60
997
636
1.057
Leposavic 1961. 1971. 1981. 18.910 18.044 16.906 843
944
858
17.371 16.221 14.977 41
76
79
655
803
992
Lipljan 1961. 1971. 1981. 40.070 49.365 60.037 24.433
33.105
43.118
10.902 10.686 10.258 633
471
354
4.102 5.103 6.307
Orahovac 1961. 1971. 1981. 35.461 46.788 61.178 30.123 41.961 56.391 3.918 3.993 4.024 1.217
621
209
302
212
552
Pec 1961. 1971. 1981. 66.656 90.124 111.071 41.532 63.193 79.965 8.852 9.298 7.995 12.701
11.306
9.796
3.571 6.327 13.315
Podujevo 1961. 1971. 1981. 51.516 60.349 75.437 41.607 54.185 72.092 7.734 4.469 2.242 1.923
1.052
615
252
643
488
Prizren 1961. 1971. 1981. 70.043 97.714 134.526 48.495 75.181 93.656 11.903 11.981 11.651 533
638
538
9.112 9.913 28.680
Pristina 1961. 1971. 1981. 102.516 152.744 210.040 57.417 91.801 140.043 34.731 32.820 43.875 4.140
5.686
6.394
6.228 12.473 19.728
Srbica 1961. 1971. 1981. 30.479 36.660 46.927 26.878 34.332 45.504 2.607 1.775 1.104 756
363
136
239
189
183
Suva Reka 1961. 1971. 1981. 34.729 45.316 59.434 30.258 41.397 55.640 4.173 3.785 3.568 79
43
27
219
91
199
T. Mitrovica 1961. 1971. 1981. 70.555 90.968 105.322 35.015 53.285 33.528 28.923 30.128 25.930 2.708
2.509
2.000
3.909 6.047 10.865
Urosevac 1961. 1971. 1981. 63.714 84.493 113.680 43.015 62.938 90.521 19.213 19.339 18.285 592
468
533
894
1.748
4.521
Source: Documentation tables RZS, SR of Serbia.
Note: The boundary-lines of the communes as drawn in 1981.

 

9. Composition of Population by Nationality 1961, 1971 and 1981 in %, for Albanians, Serbs, Montenegrins and Others
  Share in total population of commune
Albanians Serbs Montenegrins Others
61. 71. 81. 61. 71. 81. 61. 71. 81. 61. 71. 81.
Vitina 61,0 83,0 73,4 31,0 24,2 17,5 0,9 0,5 0,4 7,1 7,5 8,7
Vucitrn 72,3 83,0 87,8 22,1 14,8 9,3 2,4 1,1 0,5 3,2 1,1 2,5
Glogovac 96,5 99,9 100,0 2,2 0,4 0,0 0,5 0,0 0,0 0,8 0,1 0,0
Gnjilane 56,9 64,5 71,2 35,3 29,2 22,8 0,5 0,3 0,2 7,3 5,4 5,8
Decane 91,8 94,2 96,4 1,6 0,9 0,6 6,0 4,3 2,2 0,6 0,6 0,8
Dragas 44,5 49,5 53,2 0,7 0,5 0,2 0,2 0,1 0,0 56,4 49,9 46,6
Djakovica 89,9 93,4 95,1 4,1 3,0 2,2 5,3 3,2 2,1 0,7 0,6 0,8
Istok 56,4 66,8 70,5 26,9 21,8 17,8 11,3 5,9 3,7 5,4 5,5 9,0
Kacanik 94,2 98,0 98,0 4,3 1,5 0,9 0,1 0,0 0,0 1,4 0,5 1,1
Klina 71,4 78,1 85,2 23,6 18,6 12,5 4,1 2,7 2,1 0,9 0,6 0,2
Kos. Kamenica 57,1 63,5 67,2 40,5 35,0 30,0 0,1 0,1 0,1 2,3 1,4 2,1
Leposavic 4,6 5,4 5,2 91,8 89,8 88,5 0,2 0,4 0,5 3,4 4,4 5,8
Lipljan 60,6 67,9 71,8 27,2 21,6 17,1 1,6 1,0 0,6 10,6 10,5 10,5
Orahovac 85,0 89,8 92,2 10,7 8,5 6,6 3,4 1,3 0,3 0,9 0,4 0,9
Pec 62,5 70,2 72,1 13,1 10,7 7,2 19,1 12,5 8,8 5,3 7,0 11,7
Podujevo 80,5 89,9 96,7 15,0 7,4 2,9 3,7 1,7 0,8 0,4 1,0 0,6
Prizren 69,1 81,0 69,8 17,0 12,7 8,7 0,8 0,7 0,4 13,1 10,1 21,1
Pristina 56,2 60,9 76,3 33,8 28,0 20,9 4,0 3,7 3,0 6,0 8,0 9,8
Srbica 88,3 93,7 97,1 8,5 4,8 2,3 2,5 1,0 0,3 0,7 0,5 0,3
Suva Reka 87,2 91,4 93,7 12,0 8,3 6,0 0,2 0,1 0,0 0,6 0,2 0,3
T. Mitrovica 49,8 57,6 64,9 40,9 33,1 24,6 3,8 2,7 0,2 5,5 6,6 10,3
Urosevac 64,5 74,7 79,8 33,1 22,8 16,0 1,0 0,5 0,3 1,4 2,0 3,9

 

10. Changes in the Number of Serbs and Montenegrins by Commune per 100 People
 

Serbs

Montenegrins

  1961-71. 1971-81. 1961-81. 1961-71. 1971-81. 1961-81.
Total 0,5 -8,8 -7,8 -16,1 -14,4 -28,1
Vitina -7,7 -13,6 -19,7 -38,3 -7,8 -42,5
Vucitrn -14,7 -18,8 -30,7 -31,6 -35,0 -60,1
Glogovac -74,6 -74,8 -94,6 ... ... ...
Gnjilane 7,0 -5,1 1,6 -20,8 -10,8 -29,3
Decani -25,0 -24,6 -43,4 -27,7 -34,0 -65,4
Dragas -27,0 -24,6 -28,0 ... ... ...
Djakovica -5,0 -8,4 -13,0 -17,9 -34,0 -30,1
Istok -1,7 -13,6 -15,0 -34,4 -23,4 -51,3
Kacanik -56,1 -24,9 -67,1 ... ... ...
Klina -1,9 -13,2 -14,8 -17,1 -16,0 -30,3
Kos. Kamenica -5,2 -15,2 -15,2 ... ... ...
Leposavic -6,7 -7,7 -13,8 ... ... ...
Lipljan -2,0 -6,0 -5,9 -25,6 -23,8 -43,3
Orahovac 4,5 0,8 5,4 -25,6 -55,4 -83,4
Pec 5,0 -14,1 -9,7 -11,0 -13,4 -22,9
Podujevo -42,3 -49,9 -71,7 -45,3 -41,6 -68,1
Prizren 0,6 -2,7 0,0 19,6 -15,7 0,9
Pristina 23,2 2,4 27,6 37,3 12,4 6,1
Srbica -32,0 -27,9 -57,7 -37,0 -62,6 -76,4
Suva Reka -9,3 -5,8 -14,5 ... ... ...
T Mitrovica 4,1 -14,0 10,4 -7,4 -20,3 -16,2
Urosevac 0,6 -5,5 -4,9 -21,0 -24,6 -43,1
Note: number of Montenegrins in all three years less than 100

 

11. General Assessment of Relations with the Albanian Population in the Settlement, According to Commune
  Good Separate Not good Poor Depends Serb settl No ans. Total
Vitina 10 1 2 11 - 6 - 30
Vucitrn 4 1 7 16 - 2 1 31
Gnjilane 8 2 7 16 3 3 1 40
Decani 1 - - - - - - 1
Djakovica 1 2 - 7 - - - 11
Istok 1 1 2 9 - 1 - 14
Kacanik 1 - 1 6 - - - 8
Klina - 1 4 7 1 1 - 14
K Kamenica 4 8 7 14 - 11 - 44
Leposavic - 1 - 1 - 1 - 3
Lipljan - 1 7 4 - - - 12
Orahovac - - 2 - - - - 2
Pec 1 - 4 28 1 1 2 37
Podujevo - 1 3 37 2 - 1 44
Prizren - 1 5 13 - 2 - 21
Pristina 5 11 14 52 1 8 1 92
Suva Reka 1 - 5 7 - - - 13
Srbica - - 2 2 - - - 4
T. Mitrovica 3 5 8 11 2 7 3 39
Urosevac 3 2 4 28 - 3 - 40
Total 43 38 84 269 11 46 9 500

 

12. Explanation of Assessments of Relations with Albanian Population in Settlement According to Commune
  No. of households Explanation number
No expl. With expl. Total 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Vitina 13 17 36 6 3 2 3 8 5 2 - 2 5
Vucitrn 10 21 52 2 2 2 17 13 8 - 4 - 4
Gnjilane 14 26 54 - 3 7 17 10 9 1 2 2 3
Decani 1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Djakovica 3 8 19 - - - 6 4 6 1 1 - 1
Istok 2 12 26 - 5 3 9 4 4 - 1 - -
Kacanik 1 7 23 - 1 1 4 8 5 1 2 - 1
Klina 1 13 27 - 3 2 6 7 2 - 2 1 4
K. Kamenica 17 37 52 2 11 2 15 11 4 2 3 - 3
Leposavic 1 2 4 - 1 - 1 1 1 - - - -
Lipljan - 12 22 - 3 - 9 7 1 - 1 1 -
Orahovac - 2 4 - 2 - 1 - 1 - - - -
Pec 7 30 78 - 7 12 23 14 7 1 6 - 8
Podujevo 5 39 107 - 6 5 36 26 13 2 10 - 9
Prizren 3 18 31 - 4 3 11 9 3 - 1 - -
Pristina 26 66 128 - 24 19 35 20 10 2 8 1 9
Srbica 1 3 8 - - 1 2 2 1 - 2 - -
Suva Reka - 13 24 1 1 - 9 9 2 - 2 - -
T. Mitrovica 21 18 31 1 4 7 9 3 2 1 3 - 1
Urosevac 12 28 72 - 5 8 19 20 10 4 2 - 4
Total 138 362 795 12 86 69 232 176 94 17 50 7 52

1) Visits, friendship, spending time together, 2) Non-involvement, avoidance, 3) Indirect social and psychological pressure, 4) Direct verbal pressure, 5) Material damages, 6) Fights, Physical abuse, 7) Seizure of land, 8) Violence against children and women, 9) Violence by the organs of authority, 10) Assaults on one's life, injuries, rape and attempted rape.

 

13. General Assessment of Relations with Albanian Population in the Settlement in Comparison with Thirty Years Ago
Relations in settlement Relations 30 Years Ago
Not the same Same Better Better, no attack Bett., law & order Bett., friend- ship Bett., antag. hidden Poor No Alb. in settl. Don't know No ans. Total
Good relations 1 9 6 1 - 16 - 1 - 7 2 43
Depends on circumstances 3 1 1 - 3 - - 1 - 1 1 11
Serb. settl. 3 2 2 1 - - - - 2 4 4 46
Separation, no relations 2 3 5 5 4 7 2 1 2 4 3 38
Not good 5 3 28 5 3 17 6 4   9 2 84
Poor 4 1 51 29 16 29 10 12 3 10 - 165
Very poor 3 - 21 23 11 21 10 1 - 1 - 104
Don't know, No answer   1 - 1 - - - - - 2 5 9

Total

22 19 115 64 37 0 28 20 39 46 17 500

 

14. Trouble with Albanians and Household Members' Assessment of Changes in the Ethnic Structure of the Settlement
Trouble had by household members

Assessment of Ethnic Structure

I II III IV V Total
Total No. of households 46 58 253 121 22 500
Had no trouble 31 21 64 32 10 158
Had no contact 1 3 9 2 - 15
No answer 2 - 1 - - 3
Total no. of households that had trouble 12 34 179 87 12 324
Trouble
Threats, curses, insults 10 23 124 46 1 204
Material damage 6 17 100 42 2 167
Attacks, fights, stonings 4 21 62 32 4 123
Seizure of harvest & land 4 11 60 27 - 102
Trouble at work 3 9 46 13 3 74
Attacks on women & children 2 7 22 12 1 44
Serious injury, armed assaults - 5 22 7 - 34
Conflicts with the authorities 2 - 3 4 - 9
Rape & attempted rape - 2 4 1 - 7
Total 31 95 443 184 11 764
I) Serbian settlement remained a Serbian settlement.
II) Predominantly Serbian with an Increase to the number of Albanians.
III) Mixed, with a decline in the number of Serbs and Montenegrins.
IV) Predominantly Albanian with a decline in the number of Serbs and Montenegrins.
V) Don't know, no answer.

 

15. Relations Among Children of Different Nationality According to Kosovo Commune
  No of households Number of answers
Total No answ. No children Ans- wered Good No Alb. Separate Threats Seizure Fights Injury Total
Vitina 30 1 9 20 5 - 9 2 1 4 3 24
Vucitrn 31 - 11 20 3 2 8 7 4 6 - 30
Gnjilane 40 - 9 31 5 1 9 10 7 12 3 47
Decani 1 - - 1 1 - - - - - - 1
Djakovica 11 - 4 7 - - 3 3 - 4 - 10
Istok 14 - 4 10 3 - 4 2 2 3 - 14
Kacanik 8 - - 8 - 1 - 4 - 7 1 13
Klina 14 - 5 9 3 1 3 3 - 3 - 13
Kamenica 44 - 18 26 2 3 17 8 - 3 - 33
Leposavic 3 - 1 2 - - 1 - - 1 - 2
Lipljan 12 - 4 8 2 - 2 - 1 4 1 10
Orahovac 2 - - 2 1 - 1 - - - - 2
Pec 37 1 8 28 5 - 11 8 5 10 1 40
Podujevo 44 1 9 34 3 - 10 15 2 16 7 53
Prizren 21 1 10 10 2 - 3 6 - 5 - 1
Pristina 92 5 32 55 6 2 30 19 3 15 2 71
Srbica 4 - 1 3 - - 2 1 - 1 - 4
Suva Reka 13 - 7 6 - 1 2 2 - 3 - 8
T Mitrovica 39 1 9 29 7 6 9 6 1 5 1 35
Urosevac 40 - 8 32 6 5 8 12 3 8 - 42
Total 500 10 149 341 54 22 132 108 29 110 19 474

1 Without children, children are small or adult

 

16. Membership in the Communist League
Ethnic Structure of the Communist League Organization
  More Serbs Approx. the same More Alban. No ans. Total
Discussion of relations among the nationalities
Total 99 26 83 24 232
Not necessary at the time 18 1 1 0 20
Not discussed 36 7 44 2 89
Yes, but to the advantage of Alb. or detriment of Serb 6 3 9 1 19
Yes, without effect 22 11 20 1 55
Yes, & steps taken 7 3 5 0 15
No answer 9 1 4 20 34
Relations Among Members of Different Nationality
Total 99 26 83 24 232
Normal 17 2 12 0 31
Good 30 4 6 0 40
Separate along national lines 19 9 23 2 53
Head-count, outvoting Serbs 2 1 11 0 14
Poor 14 4 14 0 32
Intolerance 7 5 9 1 22
That was no CP 0 1 7 7 8
No answer 10 0 1 21 32
Relations Among Members
Discussion of relations among the nationialit. Good, normal Separate, head-count Poor No ans. Total
Total 71 67 52 32 232
Unnecessary 15 2 2 1 20
Not discussed 29 28 31 1 89
Yes, but in favor of Alb. or to det. of Serbs. 0 9 7 3 19
Yes, without eff . 13 23 18 1 55
Yes, steps taken 10 3 2 0 15
No answer 4 2 2 26 34

 

17. Motive for the Idea of Emigrating (per Kosovo commune)
  Motive Total
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 No ans. Motive Households
Vitina 14 2 5 8 2 2 5 - 30 30
Vucitrn 9 10 21 3 3 3 - - 49 31
Gnjilane 13 10 18 2 6 5 1 1 75 40
Decani -   - 1 - 1 - - 2 1
Djakovica 2 5 8 - 2 1 - 1 18 11
Istok 3 6 8 4 - - 2 - 23 14
Kacanik 5 5 3 2 1 - - - 16 8
Klina 2 5 8 1 2 1 1 1 20 14
Kamenica 24 17 12 5 4 - 3 - 65 44
Leposavic - 2 2 - - 1 - - 5 3
Orahovac - 2 1 - - - - - 3 2
Pec 7 13 26 5 1 3 1 1 56 37
Podujevo 7 14 19 6 13 - 2 - 61 44
Prizren 9 3 14 1 2 1 - - 30 21
Pristina 22 31 61 17 7 13 17 3 168 92
Srbica - - 2 - 2 - - - 4 4
Suva Reka 5 3 8 - - 1 2 - 19 13
T. Mitrovica 10 8 17 2 5 3 5 - 50 39
Urosevac 5 15 25 4 5 2 4 - 60 40

1. Unemployment & impossibility of getting a job
2. Motives related to the children
3. Indirect pressure
4. Direct verbal pressure
5. Direct material pressure
6. Direct physical pressure
7. Other motives

 

18. Reasons for Emigrating and Assessment of Change in the Ethnic Structure of the Settlement
Reasons for Emigrating Change in Ethnic Structure
I II III IV V Total
Reasons related to children 23 37 134 50 11 255
Impossibility of employment 28 25 103 40 4 200
Insecurity, lack of safety & freedom, fear, loss of hope 12 39 170 84 14 319
Pressure & conflicts at work 4 17 85 36 4 146
National intolerance, discrimination, inequality 7 19 92 38 9 165
Social climate, departure of Serbs 5 14 72 19 1 111
Damage to property, seizure of harvests and land 2 8 43 27 - 80
Physical threats to members of household 1 9 30 18 2 60
Loss of faith in authorities & discrimination by authorities 2 5 8 5 2 22
Total no. of reasons 84 173 737 317 47 1.358
No. of households that did not answer 3 1 4 1 - 9
Total no. of households 46 58 253 121 22 500
Changes in the Ethnic Structure:
I Serbian settlement remained Serbian settlement;
II Serbian or predominantly Serbian with pronounced decline in the number of Serbs and Montenegrins,
III Mixed, with decline in the number of Serbs and Montenegrins;
IV Albanian and predominantly Albanian with decline in number of Serbs and Montenegrins

 

19. Year the Idea Arose to Emigrate, Year When. First Household Member Emigrated and Year When All Members Emigrated
Year Before Idea of Emigrating First to emigrate Total no. members who emigrated
1964. 22    
1965. 23 22 79
1966. 30    
1967. 14 9 37
1968. 79 12 37
1969. 31 31 87
1970. 40 24 79
1971. 19 30 115
1972. 20 31 118
1973. 18 22 66
1974. 23 27 135
1975. 18 23 120
1976. 27 18 79
1977. 16 23 96
1978. 24 34 159
1979. 28 43 176
1980. 17 29 122
1981. 30 50 216
1982. 6 34 160
1983. 7 16 93
1984. - 12 72
1985. - 10 59
1986. - - 4
Undefined 10    
Total 500 500 2.109

 

20. Reasons for Emigrating and Year When First Household Member Emigrated
  Year of Emigration
No. of Households Structure in %
Before 1969 1970- 1974 1975- 1979 1980- 1986 Total Before 1969 1970- 1974 1975- 1979 1980- 1986
1. Insecurity, fear & loss of hope 33 69 107 100 319 10.3 21.6 36.8 31.3
2. Reasons related to children 33 59 89 74 255 12.1 23.9 35.0 29.0
3. Impossibility of employment 38 53 59 50 200 19.0 26.5 29.5 25.0
4. National discrimination 20 34 55 56 165 12.1 20.6 33.3 34.0
5. Discrimination at work 26 28 48 44 146 17.8 15.0 37.0 30.1
6. Social climate, departure of Serbs 15 15 44 37 111 13.5 13.5 39.7 33.3
7. Damage to property 19 26 18 17 80 23.8 32.1 22.5 21.3
8. Physical threats 13 10 16 21 60 21.7 16.7 26.7 34.9
9. Lack of protection & discrimination by authorities 1 2 12 7 22 4.5 9.1 54.5 31.9
Total number of reasons 198 269 448 406 1,358 14.6 21.8 33.7 29.9

 

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